Digital Communication – Assignment 4 – Task 1

Task 1: Communication Protocols

Communication protocols are formal descriptions of digital message formats and rules. They are required to exchange messages in or between computing systems. They are implemented in hardware and software and they cover authentication, error detection and correction, and signaling. (Ref – 1) Below are the communication protocols detailed:

WAP – This stands for ‘Wireless Application Protocol’ and is a process for accessing information over a wireless mobile network. They are a set of communication protocols that adapt the way that wireless devices are used for internet access, the World Wide Web and instant messaging.

GPRS – This stands for ‘General Packet Radio Service’ and is a mobile data service on 2G and 3G systems. As part of the service, it provides continuous connection to the Internet for mobile phones and computer users.

Web 2.0 – This is the second stage of development of the Internet. The main difference and change implemented in the second stage is the frequency of dynamic web pages and creative user-generated content. This term also relates to the extension and growth of social media and mobile-version websites.

ADSL – This stands for ‘Asymmetric digital subscriber line’ and is a data communications technology that enables faster data transmission over copper telephone lines. ADSL’s are used to provide internet access by using an existing phone line, while still allowing it to be used for phone calls. It does this by transmitting data at very high frequencies. (Ref – 2)

MMS – This stands for ‘Multimedia Messaging Service’ and is the main method of sending and exchanging messages that include multimedia content over a cellular network. MMS messages are used by individuals for personal or work related communications.

SMS – This stands for ‘Short Message Service’ and is a text messaging service component of most telephone and World Wide Web systems. It uses standardised communication protocols to enable mobile phone devices to exchange short test messages. SMS messages are used for communication purposes. (Ref – 3)

IM – This stands for ‘Instant Messaging’ and is a type of online chat that involves text transmission over the internet. It provides real-time text, which is when text is transmitted instantly as it is typed. Instant messaging is used for both personal and work-related purposes. Examples of IMs include Facebook messenger, Windows Live Messenger and Skype.

VOIP – This stands for ‘Voice over Internet Protocol’ and is a technology that allows users to make voice calls using a broadband internet connection. This is the alternative to using regular phone lines. Examples of VOIP include Skype, Teamspeak and Ventrilo.

FORUMS – An internet forum is an online discussion site that enables users to post messages that are visible to the public or other registered users. This influences replies and further posted messages on the site. Messages are often reasonably long in comparison to text or instant messages. Forums are often used by individuals with the same interest and can be educational, professional or personal.

GSM – This stands for ‘Global System for Mobile Communications’ and is a wireless network technology. GSM phones use sim cards to identify a user’s account. This allows GSM network users to move their phone number from one GSM phone to another by moving the SIM card.

Bluetooth –  This is a wireless technology that allows users to communicate on electronic devices within a short distance (typically 100 meters and less). Two devices are connected by turning on the setting on the device which searches for local devices and networks that are also connected to Bluetooth.

Domain Names & URLS – Domain names are the unique name of a website and can be bought from web hosting services. They are used by all businesses with an online presence as well as many individuals. URL is the unique entry to the address on an internet browser. URLs often include the domain name and further text that takes a user to a separate page of a website.

Microblogging – This is when users make a short, frequent post to a micro-blog. Examples of micro-blogs include Twitter and Tumblr and can be essentially defined as a social media site that enforces very short messages or posts.

Video Conferencing – This is when users provide a video-link between two or more computers and is used as an easier method of communication. It is mainly used for business conferencing and corporate meetings.

QR Codes – These are codes that are read by machines and are typically used for storing URLs and other information for reading by the camera on a smartphone. (Ref – 4) QR codes are often used for businesses to present to their customers to allow a certain group to obtain the information such as customers who buy an issue of a magazine that are exclusively entitled to a special offer from the business.

NFC – This stands for ‘Near-field communication’ and is a set of communication protocols that enable two electronic devices, one of which is usually a portable device, to enable communication by bringing them within a short distance of each other. (Ref – 5)



Websites and research sources used to help describe the different communication protocols are listed below:

Reference 1 – – used for the description of communication protocols.

Reference 2 – – used to describe ADSL.

Reference 3 – – used to describe SMS.

Reference 4 –

Reference 5 –


Task 2: Record of daily used communication protocols

All communication protocols used on 2 May 2017.

Communication protocol: Domain names and URLs

Description: I used domain names and URLs many different times on 2 May. The image below shows the URL used when browsing the internet. The domain name is ‘’ and the URL is the full link ( that takes the user to the themes page of the website. These were used many times to access information to be used for research. In total, there were twelve different domain names used to acquire information throughout the day.

wordpress url and domain

wp_ss_20170712_0002Communication protocol: WAP and GPRS

Description: WAP is accessing information over a wireless network. This is accomplished through a WAP browser that is made for mobile phones that use the protocol. WAP protocol is used when I accessed the internet in the mobile browser.

GPRS is technology that sends and recieves data between mobile devices and transmission towers. The GPRS protocol was used as the mobile data is turned on through the mobile device and this attempts to connect to the wireless mobile network through the protocol.

Image: two images- one of turning mobile sim data on. the other of user using WAP web browser to access internet on mobile device.





wp_ss_20170712_0001Communication protocol: SMS

Description: Short message service is used when text messages are sent. It uses standard communication protocols to enable mobile phone devices to exchange short messages. On 2 May, I used SMS seven times through short text messages. In the screenshot (left), I have arranged a meeting with a colleague at work.








wp_ss_20170712_0003Communication protocol: VOIP

Description: Voice over Internet Protocol is a technology that allows users to make voice calls using a broadband internet connection. This was used on a personal basis to communicate with a family member on one occasion on the day. The voice call was made over the internet using Whatsapp – a messaging app for mobile devices that requires connection to the internet. Both phones have to be connected to the internet for the call to come through. In the screenshot (left), I have given an example of all recent calls using the mobile phone application Whatsapp. This app uses the interent for exchanging calls and messages. The icon on the left will start a video call and the icon on the right starts a voice call. I have used this to contact family members.




Communication protocol: Web 2.0 and Microblogging

Description: The protocol Web 2.0 is used to access the internet. I have used it here to access Linkedin – a social media site for professionals. I access the internet for both work and personal purposes, such as research projects and keeping up to date with the latest news.

Microblogging can be seen in this image above. I have written a post that shares an assignment I have produced. I have made posts to microblogs for both work and personal purposes, such as Linkedin (work) and Facebook (personal).


Task 3: Weekly used communication tools

collage communication tools

Above is a collage created that demonstrates all communication tools used this week. This includes microblogging on Linkedin, VOIP through using Whatsapp, further microblogging and text messaging on Facebook, general text messaging, Web 2.0, URL and Domain usage and using GPRS through turning on mobile data.


Communication Protocols Infographic

Above is an infographic created to show statistics about the communication protocols I used during the week. The two charts at the top of the infographic show how I use VOIP (voice over internet protocol) for both work and personal purposes. Meanwhile, the graph at the bottom of the infographic shows the percentage figures that represent how often I use formal and informal language in the SMS messages I send during the week.


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